The library of Peradeniya University originated in 1921 as the library of the Ceylon University College. The Library was shifted to Peradeniya in 1952 and was moved to the present premises in 1960. After moving to Peradeniya, the library developed into a library network comprising the Main Library and seven other branch libraries, namely Agriculture, Science, Medical, Engineering, Vet Medical, Allied Health Science and Dental libraries. The ninth library is attached to the sub-campus, Faculty of Agriculture in Mahailuppallama. The branch libraries are located in their respective faculties. The Main Library can be accessed by proceeding along the new Galaha road, passing the entrance to the Arts Theatre and turning right to the Senate building.
Peradeniya University Library Network is considered as the oldest and the largest University library in Sri Lanka.